What You Need To Know
Rosario is the largest city in the province of Santa Fe, in central Argentina. It is located 300 km (186 mi) northwest of Buenos Aires, on the western shore of the Paraná River. One of its main attractions includes the neoclassical architecture that has been retained over the centuries in hundreds of residences, houses, and public buildings. Rosario is the head city of the Rosario Department and is located at the heart of the major industrial corridor in Argentina. The city is a major railroad terminal and the shipping center for north-eastern Argentina. Ships reach the city via the Paraná River, which allows the existence of a 10-metre-deep (34 ft) port. The Port of Rosario is subject to silting and must be dredged periodically. Exports include wheat, flour, hay, linseed and other vegetable oils, corn, sugar, lumber, meat, hides, and wool. Manufactured goods include flour, sugar, meat products, and other foodstuffs. The Rosario-Victoria Bridge, opened in 2004, spans the Paraná River, connecting Rosario with the city of Victoria, across the Paraná Delta. Because it plays a critical role in agricultural commerce, the city finds itself at the center of a continuing debate over taxes levied on big-ticket agricultural goods such as soy. Along with Paraná, Rosario is one of the few Argentine cities that cannot point to a particular individual as its founder. The city’s patron is the “Virgin of the Rosary”, whose feast day is October 7. The asteroid 14812 Rosario was named in its honor. Notable people from Rosario include the revolutionary Che Guevara; football players Lionel Messi, Ángel Di María, Maximiliano Rodríguez and Mauro Icardi; football coaches César Luis Menotti, Marcelo Bielsa and Gerardo Martino; field hockey player Luciana Aymar; rugby union players Juan Imhoff and Leonardo Senatore; actor/comedian Alberto Olmedo and actress Libertad Lamarque; jazz composer Gato Barbieri; cartoonist/writer Roberto Fontanarrosa; singer-songwriter Fito Paez; artist/painter Antonio Berni and model Valeria Mazza.
Area: 178 km²
Population: Estimate 1.3 Million
The peso (established as the peso convertible) is the currency of Argentina, identified by the symbol $ preceding the amount in the same way as many countries using dollar currencies. It is subdivided into 100 centavos. Its ISO 4217 code is ARS. Several earlier currencies of Argentina were also called “peso”; as inflation progressed a new currency with a few zeroes dropped and a different qualifier (peso national currency, peso law 18188, peso argentino…) was introduced. Since 1970, thirteen zeroes have been dropped (a factor of ten trillion).
Rosario has many cultural activities in many artistic disciplines with national and international reach. The city has produced important personalities in the fields of music, painting, philosophy, politics, poetry, literature, medicine, and law. Among the city’s important theaters are El Círculo, Sala Lavardén, Broadway, Astengo Auditorium, and La Comedia. A cultural complex known as Puerto de la Música, designed by the modernist architect Oscar Niemeyer (of Brasilia fame), is to be built along the banks of the Paraná River. If completed it will be one of the largest centers for musical performance in Latin America. In 2012, after years without progress, it was put on indefinite hold due to financial constraints. January 1995 saw the launch of the Rosario District Fishing Championship, held in the Parana River. 3 years later in 1998, a 10-year-old Lionel Messi was crowned Junior Champion. The city has several museums, including: Juan B. Castagnino Fine Arts Museum, Firma y Odilo Estévez Municipal Decorative Art Museum, Dr. Julio Marc Provincial Historical Museum, City Museum, and Museum of Contemporary Art of Rosario (MACRo). The Dr. Ángel Gallardo Provincial Natural Sciences Museum was rebuilt after a fire in 2003 and re-opened at a new location in 2006. Rosario also has a public astronomy complex, located in Urquiza Park, which consists of an observatory (inaugurated in 1970) and a planetarium (1984). The Fundación Italia is a cultural institution created in 1985, as a “cultural bond with Italy”. It has organized a Neapolitan music concert, performances of Madame Butterfly and numerous talks about the present and future of Argentina. Among the people invited to give these talks were economists Domingo Cavallo and Alfonso Prat Gay, renowned scholars Beatriz Sarlo and Silvia Bleichmar, journalists Alejandro Rozitchner and Jorge Asís, filmmaker Fernando Solanas and former presidents of Chile (Ricardo Lagos), Argentina (Eduardo Duhalde), and Uruguay (Luis Alberto Lacalle Herrera).
Rosario is the main epicentre of a metropolitan region whose economy is based on services and industry, generating the second largest urban gross regional product of Argentina, after Greater Buenos Aires. The principal manufacturing sector is the agro industry, whose industries are placed in the northern and southern areas of the Greater Rosario; the investments over the last decade have transformed Rosario into a major role of processing oil of the world. Many other sectors contribute to the diversified industrial offerings of the city. Rosario and its metropolitan area produce 20% of the cars, 4% of the domestic refrigerators, 80% of the machinery for the food industry and 100% of the auto bodies for long distance buses made in Argentina. Other important sectors include the petrochemical sector, with three plants located in the suburbs of San Lorenzo and Port San Martin; the chemistry sector, with plants for sulphuric acid, fertilizers, resins and other products; the cellulose industry; the meat industry; ironworks; auto parts; the plants and equipment for bottled oil; agricultural machinery; and the materials and equipment for the construction industry. Worldwide international companies settled in Rosario include, among others, General Motors, Cargill, Unilever, John Deere, Petrobrás, ICI, Dow, Tenneco and Mahle. The main financial bank at the city of Rosario is the Municipal Bank of Rosario. Its central offices are located in the financial district, on San Martín St., and there are several additional offices throughout the city. It is focused on small and medium enterprises and other organizations, especially through micro credits, and may be considered an “ethical bank.
Rosario has a number of public health centers: 5 municipal hospitals (including a children’s hospital and an emergency hospital/trauma center) and a municipal outpatient-only center, plus 2 large provincial hospitals (Hospital Provincial and Hospital Centenario), and their associated primary care centers in the city proper and its metropolitan area.
Rosario is the third largest urban center where Rioplatense Spanish is spoken, after Buenos Aires and Montevideo. The local language evidences the typical linguistic features that characterize this dialect, notably the voseo (use of vos instead of tú as pronoun for the second person singular) and the sheismo (form of yeísmo where ll- and y- are pronounced as a voiceless [ʃ]). Although the español rosarino does not differ substantially from the other variants of the same dialect, it presents particularities easily noticeable by those who live in the other main populated areas of the region. One of the most notable characteristics of the language of Rosario’s area of influence is the process of aspiration and disappearance of the -s. When the -s is in implosive position, end of syllable or word followed by consonant, its sound becomes a soft and voiceless aspiration [h] (the word obispo is pronounced o̞ˈβihpo̞). In the popular and vulgar language, the final -s, -r, or -d are sometimes suppressed, although this phenomenon is commonly associated to sociocultural groups of lower formal education. Just as in Buenos Aires, the voseo is pronominal and verbal. The pronoun tú and its associated verbal forms are inexistent (which is not the case of the Montevideo variant) The tendency to add a final -s to the verbal forms of the second person plural (vos fuistes, vos vinistes), which is rather common in Buenos Aires, is very unusual among Rosario natives. The intonation in Rosario is generally more neutral and monotonous than that of Buenos Aires. Even though the lexicon of Rosario and Buenos Aires is effectively identical, there are numerous terms and idioms that Rosario shares with the rest of the country (even areas where a different dialect prevails) but not with the capital, as well as other words and expressions that are unique to the rosarino speech, both formal and informal. The Rosarigasino is a type of Jerigonza (game of words) that originated in the city and was rather common in the informal speech during the 20th century. Although it has fallen into disuse, it has become a language of cult among certain local groups.
Rosario’s strategic location is destined to become a significant transportation hub and as the bi-oceanic corridor that links the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) on the Atlantic Ocean to Valparaíso (Chile), on the Pacific, an important component in global distribution and the core center of a key corridor in the Mercosur, the Common Market for the South.
The Rosario public transport system includes buses, trolleybuses and taxicabs.
The Rosario area has a Pampean, humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa/Cwa), and is well known for its changeable weather conditions. The city has average temperatures of 23.4 °C (74.1 °F) maximum and 11.6 °C (52.9 °F) minimum. The annual rainfall is 1,038 mm (40.9 in). Rosario is usually warmer than other mainland Argentine capital cities in the winter. The lowest average in winter is 4.4 °C (40 °F). This is due in part to the city’s flat topography, its situation on the Paraná River bank, and the presence of high density of urbanization. Those conditions have created a microclimate known as urban heat island that often means that the city is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas. The temperature difference usually is larger at night than during the day and larger in winter than in summer, and is most apparent when winds are weak. However, snowfalls are extremely rare: the most recent occurrence of sleet in the CBD was on 9 July 2007. During the spring, Rosario commonly enjoys extended periods of hot weather and clear skies. On average, Rosario has average day-night temperatures of 23–10 °C (73–50 °F). The city experiences hot and humid summer days, with maximum temperatures above 35 °C (95 °F), when northerly winds blow humid air from Brazil. The record high temperature is 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) on January 9, 2006 while the record low is −7.8 °C (18 °F) (repeated three times: June 13 and 14, 1967, and August 4, 1995).